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Simple 3D game developed in Unity during Global Game Jam 2014.

Play Online

Date: 2014-01-26

Download: (8.78 MB) (20.49 MB)


Simple 2D game developed during Global Game Jam 2013, for Windows.

Date: 2013-01-27

Download: (6.1 MB)

FX Batch Compiler 1.1

This Windows application supports compilation of FX effect files and HLSL shader files using fxc command line compiler included in DirectX SDK. You can compile many files at time or one file with different settings.


  • Write compilation scripts in a simple language by specifying parameters for fxc.exe.
  • Compile multiple shaders at time.
  • Compile only shaders that need rebuild checked by file modification time.
  • Review success or failure, warning and error count and compiler output for every task.
  • Compile single HLSL source file with different parameters and preprocessor macros.

Date: 2011-02-09

Block Wizard

My first Flash game. Coded with FlashDevelop in ActionScript 3.

Date: 2010-04-06

CommonLib 9.0

Universal library for C++, created especially with game programmers in mind. Includes: math module (vectors, matrices, quaternions, planes, rich set of collision functions and more), string operations, conversions, smart pointers, configuration files handling, date and time module, exception class hierarchy for error handling, file system handling, stream class hierarchy, FreeList - free memory allocator, complex logger, profiler, library for threading and synchronization, tokenizer, wrappers for compression with zlib.

Language: C++. Platforms: Windows and Linux. License: GNU LGPL. Optional support for Unicode. Optional integration with D3DX. Documentation made with Doxygen.

Date: 2009-12-16

Download: (4.92 MB)

Aqua Fish 2

Game for children - clone of PacMan. Player swims as a fish and collects points, as well as special items. Player also have to run away from enemies or destroy them. 60 maps in 6 different titlesets. Low hardware requirements. See also YouTube videos: [1], [2]. Game was published by Play Publishing company.

GameDev Calc

Calculator for game programmers. Basic data unit is a vector of 1-4 floating point numbers, which can be treated as (x,y,z,w) vector or (r,g,b,a) color. Next to basic calculations like addition, multiplication or sinus, vector operations are also available, e.g. vector normalization, conversion between degrees and radians, color conversion between RGB and HSB, finding linear an quadratic function coefficients and much more. Instead of entering single number, here you can see all the history of your calculations in form of stack and all operations are performed on that stack. Data can be entered and retrieved in different formats, like "D3DXVECTOR4(0.0f, 0.5f, 0.752f, 1.0f)" or "0xFF0080C0". Platform: Windows. Language: C#. License: GNU GPL.

Download: (53.06 KB) (50.73 KB)


Feb 2016

How code refactoring can fix stack overflow error?

tl;dr: A very long C++ function with multiple local variables, even if they are not very big and they are placed in separate scopes, can reserve as much as hundreds of kilobytes of stack frame, causing "Stack Overflow" even without bugs like infinite recursion. So you better split your long functions into shorter ones.

Can refactoring (or the lack of thereof) cause application crashes? If we understand refactoring as changes in code layout without changing its logic, we might think that it's just the matter of readability and unreadable code increases chances of introducing bugs. But here is a story in which refactoring actually fixed a bug.

Long time ago in a software project far far away, there was a bug submitted telling that the application crashes with "Stack Overflow" message. It was a Windows app, developed in C++ using Visual Studio. I thought: - I can handle that, it should be easy! Every beginner/intermediate programmer knows about the call stack and surely seen this error at least once when accidentally caused infinite recursion in his code. So my first idea was that infinite recursion happens because of some logical error in the code (that should be easy to fix) or some unfortunate, invalid input data (that should be validated for safety before usage).

As it turned out, this was not the case. After setting up all the test environment and catching the crash in Visual Studio debugger, I looked at Call Stack and noticed that it looks quite normal. Sure the call depth was significant (as for C++, I'm not talking about Java here ;) and there was even some recursion, but 20 or 30 functions is not that much. The stack ended with a call to non-recursive function that seemed correct, so it was not the recursion that caused stack overflow.

My second idea was that some of these functions allocate some big objects (like arrays) by value, as local variables on the stack and this causes the stack to grow too big. I reviewed code of the functions that I found on the stack and used "Immediate Window" panel to quickly check sizeof(xxx) of variables or their types when they used some class, but I didn't find anything particularly big. Local variable sizes varied from few bytes to at most several hundred bytes and I couldn't find any big arrays defined in these functions. I also fetched address of some local variable in a function near the bottom of the stack (which looks like 0x000000000009a370), address of a parameter from the function at the top of the stack and subtracted them to see how big the stack grown over all these calls. The result was around 50 KB - not that much.

My third idea was to check maximum size of the stack. It is 1 MB by default, but it can be changed in Visual Studio project settings, in Linker > System tab, as "Stack Reserve Size" parameter. I check my project and I found this parameter not changed from its default value.

OK, now this became more difficult than I thought. After many debugging sessions, where I looked at various pointers, addresses and numbers trying to spot some memory override, stack corruption, out-of-bounds indexing etc., I finally opened "Disassembly" and "Registers" panels. I'm not a fan of such low level stuff, so it took me some time and few Google queries to understand these RSP, RBP registers and make sense of some x86-64 opcodes. While debugging step-by-step in the assembly, I found something interesting. At the beginning of my function, there was a call to mysterious function __chkstk and the crash occurred inside it. That was a clue I could use to ask Google what this all means. I found this: Description of the stack checking for Windows NT-based applications and this: What is the purpose of the _chkstk() function? These articles say that as the stack grows, next 4 KB pages are reserved. Each next page is allocated by the system on first "touch". I could actually see in my debugger that functions which need less than 1 page (4096 B = 1000h) have an instruction at the beginning similar to this:

sub         rsp,0A9h

While my debugged function had this instead:

mov         eax,26B29h
call        __chkstk (018104AA00h)
sub         rsp,rax

The articles say that when reserving more than one page of stack memory, this function must be called to loop over addresses with 4 KB step and "touch" each page. This is really what it does:

--- f:\dd\vctools\crt\crtw32\startup\amd64\chkstk.asm ---
sub         rsp,10h
mov         qword ptr [rsp],r10
mov         qword ptr [rsp+8],r11
xor         r11,r11
lea         r10,[rsp+18h]
sub         r10,rax
cmovb       r10,r11
mov         r11,qword ptr gs:[10h]
cmp         r10,r11
jae         cs10+10h (018104AA40h)
and         r10w,0F000h
lea         r11,[r11-1000h]
mov         byte ptr [r11],0
cmp         r10,r11
jne         cs10 (018104AA30h)
mov         r10,qword ptr [rsp]
mov         r11,qword ptr [rsp+8]
add         rsp,10h

Key sentence of the second linked article seems to be: "The parameter in rax is size of data you want to add." In my case, eax is set to 26B29h = 158505. Wait, what?! This is more than 150 KB! Is it really how much of the stack the function needs?!

It was finally the right conclusion. The function was more than 3000-lines long, with lots of nested conditions and all kinds of stuff, but mostly an all-encompassing switch with dozens of different cases. I refactored it, extracting code from under each case to a separate function. This fixed the "Stack Overflow" crash.

Apparently if you have a long function and define a lot of local variables, even if they are not particularly big and they are placed inside separate scopes like if-s or switch case-s, the function may need as much as 150 KB of stack frame, at least in Debug configuration. This can cause crash with "Stack Overflow" message even without infinite recursion or bugs like that. So please keep this in mind as additional argument for refactoring your code as soon as you see the need for it.

Comments (0) | Tags: visual studio c++ | Author: Adam Sawicki | Share

Feb 2016

Global Game Jam 2016 - Postmortem of our project

Last weekend, this year's edition of Global Game Jam took place all around the world. Just like in previous years, I participated in 3City Game Jam - a site in Gdańsk, Poland. It is a big one, with over 150 participants, organized by Playsoft company in their office. Theme this year was "Ritual". Regarding technology, Unity was most popular in our site, with just few games using something else: Unreal Engine, HTML5, GameMaker and C++ with SFML.

We have also used Unity. Our team consisted of 3 programmers. Here you can see our game: Bloody Eclipse, but it is far from being finished or playable. Honestly speaking, in my opinion the project on this jam went exceptionally poor. We didn't even make it to the top 10 best voted games to be presented on a big screen. That's why I'd like to share some conclusions, for you as well as for my future self.

First, it were not environmental issues that caused any problems. We all had our hardware and software set up before the jam, with Unity, Visual Studio, Git client and other tools already in place. Internet worked perfectly with transfer up to 80 Mbps in both directions. Second, it was not a lack of knowledge or skills. Our work in Unity went quite smoothly. We could deal with C#, 3D math and Git pretty well. Third, it was not because of the lack of artists in our team. Sure, graphics is very important for overall experience, but the guys who made The Bad Ritual also didn't have artists in their team and they somehow found a consistent visual style for their game, made it fun and pretty. There are many possibilities to make minimalistic and yet visually pleasant game, just like there are many free assets ready to use in Unity Asset Store.

The biggest thing that was missing in our team was management/leadership. I deliberately don't call it planning or design, because in a hectic environment like a game jam it's not enough to design the game at the beginning and then just execute. Things are changing fast, new ideas come to mind, time is running fast and new obstacles appear (like bugs or difficulties in development), so someone should have an authority to decide what to do next, keep the list of tasks "TODO" and update it constantly with priorities assigned so the most important things are done first. Noone took this role in our team. As the result, we've spent almost whole Saturday developing and polishing algorithm for enemy movement and around half an hour brainstorming and then voting for the game title, while our game used untextured, placeholder cubes and spheres as models until the very end :)

Conclusion: It's not enough to know how to code. It's also important to decide WHAT to code so that best possible result can be achieved with limited time and resources.

But the Global Game Jam as a whole is not a contest (despite our site actually was one, with PlayStation 4 for each team member as first prize) but just a fun, creative event. Despite all the problem we had I think it was fun. I had yet another opportunity to use Unity, which is a great technology. I realized I can handle Git pretty well, despite I don't feel like an expert knowing about "rebase" and such advanced stuff. I realized I still remember how to use the so much unintuitive inteface of Blender, which I learned many years ago to use in my master thesis. I could play many interesting games created on this jam, like my favorite: Witch Rite (it took 3rd place) or the one that won the contest: Acolytes: Ritual of Ascension. And finally, I've met many interesting people who do all sorts of crazy stuff, from running a company that produces medical software and hardware, to visiting escepe rooms and practicing celtic dances :)

Comments (0) | Tags: productions competitions ggj | Author: Adam Sawicki | Share

Jan 2016

How to quickly convert MKV to MP4 file using VLC?

Do you have a video in MKV file and you can't open it because some program (like Sony Vegas Pro) doesn't support this format? If so, you probably wonder how to convert it into some different format. I just discovered a way to do this.

To understand this method, first you need to know that media file formats are just containers (for example, MKV is Matroska). Each format encapsulates a set of streams, usually one video and one audio stream. Now, each stream is encoded using some specific codec. There may be various codecs used, but for the file I needed to convert, Media Player Classic (my favorite movie player, installed with K-Lite Codec Pack) shows following information after selecting File > Properties:

Type: Matroska
Video: MPEG4 Video (H264) 720x400 25fps [V: English [eng] (h264 main L4.0, yuv420p, 720x400) [default]]
Audio: AAC 44100Hz stereo [A: aac lc, 44100 Hz, stereo [default]]

MPEG4 Video is the same codec that may be used with MP4 file format! It means we could convert ("repack") the file to just different container format, rewriting streams as-is without actually converting video or audio - which should be very fast (converting a long movie takes only few seconds) and wouldn't cause any quality loss.

To do that, I used VLC media player. This program has its own set of codecs for many video and audio formats, so it doesn't depend on codecs installed in Windows. The player is actually just an overlay on top of a powerful library that can also do different things, like streaming video over network (that's probably where the company name "VideoLAN" comes from) or convert files.

So to convert an MKV file to MP4:

  1. Run "VLC media player".
  2. From main menu select "Media" > "Convert / Save...".
  3. On "File" tab, click "Add..." button.
  4. Choose you MKV file. After that, it should be added to the list. (Alternatively, you can drag&drop a file into the list.)
  5. Click "Convert/Save" button.
  6. Select Profile: "Video - H.264 + MP3 (MP4)".
  7. Click on the icon button that has hint: "Edit selected profile".
  8. On "Encapsulation" tab, leave "MP4/MOV" selected.
  9. On "Video codec" tab, check both "Video" and "Keep original video track".
  10. On "Audio codec" tab, similarly select both "Audio" and "Keep original audio track".
  11. Click "Save" button.
  12. In "Destination" selection, click "Browse" button to select directory and file name for you destination MP4 file.
  13. Click "Start" button.
  14. Observe progress bar in the main window as file is converted.
  15. After that, my VLC (version 2.2.1) seems to hang in an infinite loop so I have to kill it using system "Task Manager", but it doesn't matter - the destination file is already created.

Comments (0) | Tags: video | Author: Adam Sawicki | Share

Jan 2016

ID3D11Device::CreateTexture2D: pInitialData[0].SysMemPitch cannot be 0

The concept of "stride" or "pitch" - a step (in bytes) to be taken to proceed to next element of a data structure - is brilliant, because it gives great flexibility. In 3D graphics for example, explicitly specified number of bytes between vertices in a vertex buffer or rows in a texture can be:

  1. Equal to exact size of vertex structure or texture row, when these entries are laid out next to each other.
  2. Greater, so additional padding can exist at the end of each entry or entries can be interleaved with some other data to be skipped in particular case.
  3. Zero, so that the same single entry will be read over and over.

This is a theory, because I just discovered that option 3 doesn't work in Direct3D 11 when passing pInitialData to created texture. I cannot see any reason why specifying D3D11_SUBRESOURCE_DATA::SysMemPitch == 0 should be considered invalid, other than trying to save developer from possibly unintended mistake. I think it is actually pretty useful for initializing a texture with the same data in each row, so it would be enough to allocate and fill the data for just one row, instead of full texture. And still, following code fails on call to CreateTexture2D:

    TEXTURE_FORMAT, // format
    (UINT)TEXTURE_SIZE.x, // width
    (UINT)TEXTURE_SIZE.y, // height
    1, // arraySize
    1, // mipLevels
    D3D11_BIND_SHADER_RESOURCE, // bindFlags
    D3D11_USAGE_DYNAMIC, // usage
    D3D11_CPU_ACCESS_WRITE); // cpuaccessFlags
std::vector<uint32_t> initialTextureRow(TEXTURE_SIZE.x);
ZeroMemory(&initialTextureRow[0], TEXTURE_SIZE.x * sizeof(uint32_t));
D3D11_SUBRESOURCE_DATA textureInitialData = {
    &initialTextureRow[0], // pSysMem
    0, // SysMemPitch
    0 }; // SysMemSlicePitch
ID3D11Texture2D *texture = nullptr;
ERR_GUARD_DIRECTX( m_Dev->CreateTexture2D(&textureDesc, &textureInitialData, &texture) );

DirectX debug layer reports error:

D3D11 ERROR: ID3D11Device::CreateTexture2D: pInitialData[0].SysMemPitch cannot be 0 [ STATE_CREATION ERROR #100: CREATETEXTURE2D_INVALIDINITIALDATA]

Dear Microsoft: Why? :)

Comments (0) | Tags: directx | Author: Adam Sawicki | Share

Dec 2015

Funny quotes from Twitter - Part 2

Some time ago I published my list of Funny quotes from Twitter - Part 1. As I read Twitter regularly, I would like to share some new funny (and sometimes serious) quotes that I liked recently, again mostly about programming.

my solution runs in O(my god) time

We're about 5 years away from dumping the games and just buying the trailers

Programming is a constant exercise in remembering how stupid you really are. (@ramyhg)

Problem statement = goals + constraints

As technology advances, rendering time remains constant. (Blinn's Law)

First Law of Software Quality:
e = mc^2
errors = (more code)^2

We used to leak kilobytes, then megs, then even gigs. Now, we leak EC2 instances. Someday, we'll leak entire datacenters.

Why did a DBA suddenly quit his career and become a DJ? Because he DROPed the base! (@astarasikov)

if Apple's graphics API for small phone GPUs was called "metal", does that make the desktop version "heavy metal"?

Programming is like writing a book... except if you miss out a single comma on page 126 the whole thing makes no damn sense.

You likely have to get management approval for a $500 expense... but you can call a 1-hr meeting with 20 people and no one notices.

"I've set the wedding date. I've not asked her out yet." - how software projects are managed.

Compiler devs, I'm not sure how to break this to you, but SSA is ass backwards. (@rygorous)

My hope is that if I use enough encapsulation, no one will find out that I have no idea what I’m doing :D (@BenNadel)

Just because RAM stands for Random Access Memory doesn't mean you should strive to access memory randomly. (@domipheus)

THE GUIDFATHER (annoyed): I'll make him an offer he can't reuse. (@rygorous)

What's up? Answer: up is a static const vector3 (@_Humus_)

Programming is like sex: It may give some concrete results, but that is not why we do it. #stroustrup (@samanismael)

What do you say to a Linux user? Nothing, their sound card doesn't work.

"You had one job," said the work stealing scheduler "but now it's mine.".

When .NET developers are fired they put their stuff in a box, even though boxing is generally discouraged in that space.

'Fancy algorithms are slow when n is small, and n is usually small.' -- Rob Pike (@CompSciFact)

User interface is like a joke, if you have to explain it, it's not that good.

Unfortunately, Accidental Complexity is often where the fun is for many developers. (@cyriux)

Objects are data structures with functions. Closures are functions with data.

My girlfriend says she needs time and distance. Is she calculating velocity?

an important question: if one wants to grows a binary tree, does one put a 1 or a 0 in the soil? (@logicalerror)

- "What do we want?" - "Now!" - "When do we want it?" - "Fewer race conditions!" (@wellendonner)

Tetris is a game about technical debt (@JeremyGrosser)

"Immutable objects are always tread safe." -- Brian Goetz

I don't think any profession makes you feel as stupid as programming. Yes, computer, you WERE right. I am sorry. (@JJcoolkl)

"Nobody wins a data race." -- Pablo Halpern #cppcon

Videogames have a unique way of combining all the risks of a creative endeavor with all the risks of software engineering.

The year is "2027". Strings are the only remaining data type. (@velartrill)

A programmer with a hammer will find most problems sufficiently nail-like. (@TimSweeneyEpic)

Debugging is like being the detective in a crime movie where you are also the murderer. (@fortes)

Comments (0) | Tags: humor | Author: Adam Sawicki | Share

Dec 2015

PrintStream 2.0 - Polymorphic Printf

Almost 4 years ago I shared a code snippet: CPrintStream - Polymorphic Printf. I recently came back to this code and decided to improve it in many ways. It is now more clean, efficient, and supports Unicode character set.

I created MISC repository on my GitHub for the purpose of such small code snippets and added new version of my code there, as:

GitHub sawickiap / MISC / PrintStream


A hierarchy of classes that represent abstract concept of a text-based stream that can be printed into, using methods like print(const char* str), printf(const char* format, ....) etc. Derived classes offer printing to console (standard output), to file, to memory buffer and more.

Comments (0) | Tags: c++ | Author: Adam Sawicki | Share

Nov 2015

type_safe_ptr - Idea for Type-Safe void* Pointer

I was thinking recently about passing raw data pointers (like void* or char*), which we have to do sometimes in C++. Is there any way to check if the type that we cast it to is the same as the type of last assigned value? I came up with an idea of implementing a "smart pointer" class using RTTI (specifically typeof operator) to store type information next to the actual pointer. Example usage:

int i = 123;
type_safe_ptr ptr{&i};
int j = *ptr.get_typed<int>(); // OK
float f = *ptr.get_typed<float>(); // Error

Initially I wanted to store pointer to const type_info struct returned by typeid operator, and it seems to work in Visual Studio 2015, but language standard defines the object returned by typeid as temporary, so it is not formally correct. Finally I decided to store typeid(T).hash_code(). You can find my implementation of classes type_safe_ptr and type_safe_const_ptr in file: type_safe_ptr.hpp. Here is example tesing program:

#include <cstdio>
#include "type_safe_ptr.hpp"

int main()
    type_safe_ptr ptr1;
    // ptr1 is null.
    assert(ptr1.get() == nullptr);

    int i = 123;
    type_safe_ptr ptr2{&i};
    // ptr2 is pointer to int.
    assert(*ptr2.get_typed<int>() == 123);
    // It would activate assert inside type_safe_ptr.get_typed, because ptr2 is int not float.
    //assert(*ptr2.get_typed<float>() == 123.f);

    struct STest { int i; } obj;
    // itr2 is now pointer to STest.
    ptr2 = &obj;
    ptr2.get_typed<STest>()->i = 124;
    assert(obj.i == 124);
    // It would activate assert inside type_safe_ptr.get_typed, because ptr2 is now STest not int.
    //assert(*ptr2.get_typed<int>() == 123);
    type_safe_const_ptr cptr = type_safe_const_ptr(ptr2);
    // cptr is pointer to const STest.
    assert(cptr.get_typed<STest>()->i == 124);

    const int* constIntPtr = &i;
    // cptr is now pointer to const int.
    assert(*cptr.get_typed<int>() == 123);

Some issues and open question regarding my solution are:

  • Is the type_info::hash_code() always unique for different types? There is a StackOverflow question about this. I believe it should be quite unique except rare cases where hash collision occurs.
  • It does not support polymorphism - base and derived classes are treated as completely different types.
  • Type checking requires additional storage and computations, so maybe the implementation could be changed to #ifdef _DEBUG all type-checking code and reduce pointer classes to just wrappers of void* in Release builds.

Final question is, whether this whole idea of "type-checking void* smart pointer" makes any sense? I am not sure about that, but anyway it was a funny experiment :)

Comments (0) | Tags: c++ visual studio | Author: Adam Sawicki | Share

Nov 2015

The Virtual Reality of Code

In my opinion, coding is a virtual reality with its own set of rules unlike in the physical world. In physical world, each thing has its specific location at the moment, things don't appear or disappear instantly, we have laws of energy and mass conservation. Inside a computer, we have data in memory (which is actually linear - 1D) and processors, processes and threads executing instructions of a program over time.

I have been trying for years to imagine some nice way editing or at least visualizing code, which would be more convenient (and look more attractive) than the text representation we all use. I am unsuccessful, because even if we render some nice looking depiction of a function code, its instructions, conditions and loops, drawing all the connections with variables and functions that this code uses would clutter the image too much. It's just like this virtual world doesn't fit into a 2D or 3D world.

Movie depiction of computer programs is often visually attractive, but far from being practical. This one comes from "Hackers" movie.

Of course there are ways of explaining a computer program on a diagram, e.g. entity diagrams or UML notation. I think that electrical diagrams are something in between. Electrical devices end up as physical things, but on a diagram, the shape, size and position of specific elements doesn't match how they will be arranged on a PCB. Logical representation and electrical connections between them is the only thing that matters.

Today it occured to me that this virtual reality of code also has "dimensions", in its own sense. It's evident when learning programming.

1. First, one has to understand control flow - that the processor executes subsequent instructions of the program over time and that there can be jumps caused by conditions, loops, function calls and returns. It's called dynamic aspect of the code. It can be depicted e.g. by UML sequence diagram or activity diagram.

I still remember my colleague at university who couldn't understand this. What's obvious to every programmer, was a great mystery to him as first year's computer science student. He thought that when there is a function above main(), instructions of that function are executed first and then instructions of the main function. He just couldn't imagine the concept of calling one function from the other and returning from it.

2. Then, there is so called static aspect - data structures and objects that are in memory at given moment in time. This involves understanding that objects can be created in one place and destroyed in another place and at later time, that there may be a collection of multiple objects (arrays, lists, trees, graphs and other data structures), objects may be connected to one another (the concept of pointers or references). Various relationships are possible, like one-to-one and one-to-many. In object-oriented methodologies, there is another layer of depth here, as there are classes and interfaces (with inheritance, composition etc.) and there are actual objects in memory that are instances of these classes. It can be depicted for example by entity diagram or UML class diagram.

3. Finally, one has to learn about version control systems that store history of the code. This adds another dimension to all the above, as over successive commits, developers make changes to the code - its structure and the way it works, including format of data structures it uses. Branches and merges add even more complexity to it. GUI apps for version control systems offer some way of visualizing this, whether it's showing a timeline with commits ("History") or showing who and when commited each line of a file ("Blame").

There is even more to it. Source is organized into files and directories, which may be more or less related to the structure of contained code. Multithreading (and coprocessing e.g. with GPU, SIMD, and all kinds of parallel programming) complicates imagining (and especially debugging!) control flow of the program. Program binaries and data may be distributed into multiple programs and machines that have to communicate.

It fascinates me how software is so multidimensional in its own way, while so flat at the same time (after all, computer memory is linear). I believe that becoming a programmer is all about learning how to imagine, navigate and create stuff in this virtual reality.

Comments (1) | Tags: philosophy software engineering | Author: Adam Sawicki | Share

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