Tag: visual studio

Entries for tag "visual studio", ordered from most recent. Entry count: 50.

Warning! Some information on this page is older than 3 years now. I keep it for reference, but it probably doesn't reflect my current knowledge and beliefs.

Pages: 1 2 3 ... 7 >

12:59
Wed
08
Jul 2015

How to check size of structure during development in Visual C++?

Today I wanted to know what is sizeof(SomeStructure) during my coding in C++ in Visual Studio, without compiling and running my program. I needed that to put it into an assertion. Sure I could run the program and then break into debugger and evaluate the sizeof(SomeStructure) e.g. in Watches window, but the project is big and takes long time to build.

It turns out there is no such feature in Visual Studio to check size of structure, but it can be easily hacked using IntelliSense. In just few seconds, from this Google query, through its first result - this StackOverflow page, I have found following solution:

1. Put this line somewhere into your code:

template<size_t S> class Sizer { }; Sizer<sizeof(MY_STRUCTURE)> foo;

2. Replace "MY_STRUCTURE" with the name of your structure, other type or a variable.

3. Hover mouse cursor over "foo" and observe evaluated expression, for example: "Sizer<1296U> foo". 1296 is the size of your structure, in bytes - same as operator sizeof would return in runtime, when your program is compiled in currently selected configuration. "U" is for "unsigned".

By the way, maybe it would be a good feature request to add printing size of a type to the information available in design-time in Visual Studio, e.g. to Properties window, where there already are information about the type like IsTemplate, IsValue etc.?

Comments (1) | Tags: c++ visual studio | Author: Adam Sawicki | Share

07:29
Wed
20
May 2015

Installing Visual C++ Redistributable Package from Command Line

You may think that unless you explicitly use some external library (like FMOD), your program will not require any additional libraries to work, but when coding in C++ using Visual Studio, this is not the case. The functions of standard C/C++ library are implemented in a package of DLL-s called Microsoft Visual C++ Redistributable Package. Each version of Visual Studio has their own set. For example, version for Visual Studio 2013 (Release configuration) consists of files: msvcr120.dll, msvcp120.dll.

You can make your application not requiring this library by setting your project options in Configuration Properties > C/C++ > Code Generation > Runtime Library to "Multi-threaded [Debug]" without the "DLL" part, which makes it statically linked. Alternatively, you can distribute these DLL files (although I'm not sure if this is legal) or the whole library installer together with your application. The library is small and free, available to download from Microsoft website:

The question is: can you launch the installer of these packages with some special parameter so the user doesn't have to go through all the setup wizard, confirming each step? The answer is yes, but as Microsoft likes to change everything very often :) the exact command line is different depending on version. Here is the whole set:

Visual Studio 2005:

Visual Studio 2005, x86 (32-bit version):
vcredist_x86.exe /q:a /c:"VCREDI~1.EXE /q:a /c:""msiexec /i vcredist.msi /qn""
Visual Studio 2005, x64 (64-bit version):
vcredist_x64.exe /q:a /c:"VCREDI~2.EXE /q:a /c:""msiexec /i vcredist.msi /qn"" "
Visual Studio 2005 SP1, x86:
vcredist_x86.exe /q:a /c:"VCREDI~3.EXE /q:a /c:""msiexec /i vcredist.msi /qn"" "
Visual Studio 2005 SP1, x64:
vcredist_x64.exe /q:a /c:"VCREDI~2.EXE /q:a /c:""msiexec /i vcredist.msi /qn"" "

If you would like to install it in unattended mode (which will show a small progress bar but not require any user interaction), you can change the "/qn" switch above to "/qb". Unattended mode + disabled "Cancel" button is "/qb!".

Visual Studio 2008: Just pass one of these parameters:

/q - quiet mode, no user interface.
/qb - unattended mode, shows progress bar but no user interaction required.
/qb! - unattended mode with "Cancel" button disabled.

Visual Studio 2010 and 2012:

/q /norestart - quiet mode
/passive /norestart - passive (unattended) mode

Visual Studio 2013:

/install /quiet /norestart - quiet mode
/install /passive /norestart - passive (unattended) mode

To quickly install all of these libraries on the machines where lots of different applications are launched that may require them, I gathered all the libraries in one directory and I have written following BAT script:

"2005 SP1\vcredist_x86.exe" /q:a /c:"VCREDI~3.EXE /q:a /c:""msiexec /i vcredist.msi /qb"" "
"2005 SP1\vcredist_x64.exe" /q:a /c:"VCREDI~2.EXE /q:a /c:""msiexec /i vcredist.msi /qb"" "

"2008 SP1\vcredist_x86.exe" /qb
"2008 SP1\vcredist_x64.exe" /qb

"2010 SP1\vcredist_x86.exe" /passive /norestart
"2010 SP1\vcredist_x64.exe" /passive /norestart

"2012 Update 4\vcredist_x86.exe" /passive /norestart
"2012 Update 4\vcredist_x64.exe" /passive /norestart

"2013\vcredist_x86.exe" /install /passive /norestart
"2013\vcredist_x64.exe" /install /passive /norestart

Comments (0) | Tags: visual studio c++ | Author: Adam Sawicki | Share

23:57
Wed
14
Jan 2015

Review: Deleaker - A tool that finds resource leaks

Deleaker is a tool for programmers that finds resource leaks in C++ programs. It's commercial, with free trial and unconditional 30 day money back. Here is my review of this tool. I've tested version 3.0.27.0.

Deleaker is installed as a plugin for Visual Studio, any version from 2005 to 2013. It also works with Visual Studio Community 2013, as this new free version also supports plugins. There is also standalone Deleaker application (see below).

The purpose of this tool is to augment debugging of native C++ programs with the ability to list all resources that are allocated at the moment (heap memory, virtual memory, OLE memory, GDI objects, USER objects, handles) and so to detect resource leaks. Here is how it works:

The interface is very simple - it can be learned in just few minutes. You can build your program and start debugging it by hitting F5, Deleaker is enabled automatically. Now just open dedicated panel (menu Deleaker > Deleaker Window) and there press "Take snapshot" button. You don't even have to pause execution, but of course the button works as well when your program is paused at a breakpoint. After few seconds, the panel is populated with a list of currently allocated resources, with the place from which it was allocated shown in first column.

After selecting one, bottom panel displays full call stack. Clicking in this call stacks navigates to the place in the source code where the allocation is specified. Finally, after program exit, the list is filled with resources that were not freed - these are actual leaks!

You can filter the list by module (EXE or DLL file that made the call) and by resource type (memory, GDI objects etc.). There is also a column with size of the resource and "Hit Count" - number of resources that were allocated by that particular place in the code (e.g. inside a loop) and stay allocated at the moment.

"Show full stack" button is a nice feature. Clicking it displays full call stack, while by default, the stack is stripped from entries that don't come from your code, but from system libraries. For example, above my function with the actual allocation instruction, there is MSVCR120D.dll!operator new, then there is MSVCR120D.dll!malloc etc... until ntdll.dll!RtlAllocateHeap. It's good that the program can ignore such call stack entries. It also entirely ignores allocations made by system modules outside of your code.

Unfortunately it does this only by identifying module that the function comes from and not it's name, so it cannot ignore templates, like these from STL containers. Maybe ignoring functions by name specified as wildcard or regular expression would help, e.g. "std::*" or "std\:\:.+" - just like Visual Studio debugger can step over specified functions, as I described in How to Make Visual Studio Debugger not Step Into STL.

You can press "Take snapshot" multiple times and save the snapshots for later view. (They are just numbered, you cannot give them names.) By the way, Deleaker captures F5 key, so even when during debugging session, if the focus is in Deleaker panel, this button doesn't resume your program, but instead refreshes the list of allocations (takes new snapshot). You can also select two snapshots and compare them. Then you see only resources that were allocated in the right snapshot and not in the left, which can indicate a leak that happened during some time of the program execution.

Besides heap memory allocations, the tool can also detect other types of resources, like GDI objects. Unfortunately not all interesting types of resources are covered. For example, an opened file of type FILE* f = fopen(...) is shown as normal memory allocation and opened file of type HANDLE f = CreateFile(...) is not shown at all, but I guess it must be due to some system internals.

I didn't find a single leak in my main home project, so I created a dedicated, simple program to test if it can really find leaks. I also checked that it works with programs compiled in Release configuration as well.

Aside from being a Visual Studio plugin, Deleaker can also work as standalone Windows application.

Overall, I like the program. If its price is not a problem for you or your company, I think it can be very useful in improving quality of developed software. I especially like the fact that it's so easy to learn and use.

Comments (3) | Tags: c++ tools visual studio | Author: Adam Sawicki | Share

23:47
Thu
13
Nov 2014

Microsoft Visual Studio Community 2013 !!!

Microsoft just released a new edition of Visual Studio that will replace Express. It's called Visual Studio Community 2013 and it's free, while it has all the features of the commercial edition, including support for plugins and many advanced tools. You can download it from Visual Studio Downloads, web installer or DVD ISO. It works with "old" Windows 7 as well. Good move Microsoft! For me it's probably the news of the month :) So far, I installed the IDE and tested on my home project CPU profiling:

...and Graphics Analyzer, which replaces good old PIX:

Comments (2) | Tags: visual studio | Author: Adam Sawicki | Share

14:49
Sun
28
Sep 2014

Building 64-bit Executables in Visual Studio Express

I admit that for years I was convinced only the paid version of Visual Studio can compile 64-bit EXE files. It's just because I never really needed to create one in my personal projects. Now I have to do it (what for? - I will show in one of my next posts) and as it turns out, it's perfectly possible and easy to do also in Visual Studio Express. You just have to make some configuration because the "x64" platform is not shown by default. So to compile 64-bit executable in your Visual Studio 2013 Express:

You can now choose and build any configuration (Debug or Release) for any platform (Win32 or x64). For x64 platform, intermediate and output files will be written to subdirectories: x64\Debug\ and x64\Release\. Notice that for Win32, it's just Debug\ and Release\.

Comments (3) | Tags: c++ visual studio | Author: Adam Sawicki | Share

19:14
Tue
23
Apr 2013

Type Visualization in Visual Studio 2012 Debugger

When you code in C++ and you have your own library of data types, especially containers, it would be nice to be able to see it in the debugger formatted in some readable way. In Visual C++/Visual Studio, there used to be a special file autoexp.dat designed for this purpose, as described in "Writing custom visualizers for Visual Studio 2005". But it had weird syntax and poor error reporting.

Now in Visual Studio 2012 there is a new way of defining debugger visualizations for native data types, called Native Type Visualization Framework (natvis). All you need to do is to create an XML file with ".natvis" extension following special format and place it in directory: %USERPROFILE%\Documents\Visual Studio 2012\Visualizers. Full documentation of this format is on this single MSDN page: "Creating custom views of native objects in the debugger". See also "Expressions in Native C++" and "Format Specifiers in C++".

For example, if you have a singly linked list:

template<typename T>
class CLinkedList {
   // ...
    struct CNode {
       T Value;
       CNode* Next;
    };
    size_t Count;
    CNode* Head;
};

Default visualization of a 3-element object in the debugger would look like this:

But if you create following natvis file:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<AutoVisualizer xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/vstudio/debugger/natvis/2010">
   <Type Name="CLinkedList&lt;*&gt;">
       <DisplayString>{{Count = {Count}}}</DisplayString>
       <Expand>
           <Item Name="[Count]">Count</Item>
           <LinkedListItems>
               <Size>Count</Size>
               <HeadPointer>Head</HeadPointer>
               <NextPointer>Next</NextPointer>
               <ValueNode>Value</ValueNode>
           </LinkedListItems>
       </Expand>
   </Type>
</AutoVisualizer>

Next time you start debugging (restarting Visual Studio is not required), same object will be shown as:

Besides extracting single fields from objects, evaluating whole C++ expressions and formatting values into a string for summary of whole object, this framework is able to visualize following data structures:

Comments (5) | Tags: visual studio debugger c++ | Author: Adam Sawicki | Share

23:03
Sun
27
May 2012

How to Run Windows Command with Given Working Directory?

The concept of "working directory" during program startup or "current directory" of the running process is an interesting topic in itself. Maybe I'll write another time about how to manipulate it in different programming languages. This time enough to say that some programs look for auxilliary files in working directory, some in the directory where own EXE file is located and some in other places like user's profile directory.

Problems begin when a program needs auxilliary files located in same directory as executable, but uses working directory to locate it. Apparently such program expects to always be ran with working directory equal to path of its EXE. It happened to me yesterday while using Windows port of Bison (parser generator). Error was:

win_bison: cannot open file `data/m4sugar/m4sugar.m4': No such file or directory

I can't just run the program with another working directory because I execute it from Visual C++, as a Custom Build Tool associated with my ".y" file. There is only place to enter a command in file property page, no place to change working directory, which is by default the directory of Visual C++ project I think.

The solution I found to be able to run a console command with given parameters and also with given working directory is to do it indirectly, using system "start" command, like this:

start /B /WAIT /D <WorkingDir> <ExePath> <Parameters>

Update 2012-11-29: I was informed that the problem in win_bison is now fixed so it can be used without such workaround.

Comments (15) | Tags: visual studio windows | Author: Adam Sawicki | Share

20:48
Mon
16
Apr 2012

Redirecting Output to File in Visual C++

If you write a console program in C++ that prints
 a lot of text to the standard output, sometimes watching these few newest line that appear in the black system console is not enough. When running the program from command line, you can redirect its output to a text file with syntax like > Output.txt.

What about launching program from Microsoft Visual Studio / Visual C++ Express? Can you redirect console output to file from there? There is no field for it in project properties, but it actually works when you just append the redirect symbol to Command Arguments field, like this:

Comments (30) | Tags: c++ visual studio | Author: Adam Sawicki | Share

Pages: 1 2 3 ... 7 >

STAT NO AD [Stat] [Admin] [STAT NO AD] [pub] [Mirror] Copyright © 2004-2015 Adam Sawicki
Copyright © 2004-2015 Adam Sawicki