In DirectX 9 there is a lot of states to be set in the device object, so there are these lengthy articles about what could be the cause of not seeing anything rendered on the screen. For example, you could forget to set D3DRS_LIGHTING to FALSE (default is TRUE) and all your geometry is totally black.
Direct3D 11, on the other hand, has more clean API. There is no fixed-function pipeline, only shaders and all remaining states are grouped into state objects. Still there are some things that need to be set before you make a successful draw call, so I prepared a handy checklist for that. Just remember that you can set NULL as any state object and it's still OK - some well defined defaults will be used in that case.
Of course that's not all what is possible, You can also change render target and depth-stencil, setup scissor rects, stream output, compute shader, unordered access views... Basically all you can find in ID3D11DeviceContext class. But I enlisted what I use most often.