Many people believe that C and C++ are languages suitable only for coding some special kinds of applications - low level or high performance. I think it's not 100% true. Here is a story: 2011-11-11 we had a game development competition organized in this topic on forum.warsztat.gd, called "Explosive Hamster Exhibition Compo". The name comes from crazy game titles that can be generated by Video Game Name Generator, which was used in this compo to generate a topic, unique for each participant. We had to develop a game in 3 hours. From 3 topics generated for me I chose "Micro Sewer Plus" and made a game about closing sewers. (Download: Reg - MicroSewerPlus.7z - binary + source code, 479 KB.)
You can prepare a good library by yourself or download one of many freely available on the Internet and use just like in any other programming language. What you get in return when deciding to use C++ is great flexibility in defining how the interface of your library looks like. Thanks to templates, operator overloading and all that stuff you can create your own domain-specific language inside C++ (like the << operator is used to write to stream objects). At the same time, due to compiling to native code, creating objects on the stack and other language features you don't have to sacrifice performance. You don't have to use separate variables float x, y, z or dynamically allocate new Vector(x, y, z). You can define a vector structure with overloaded operators, use it conveniently and compiler will optimize the code so you can do thousands or millions of vector computations per second.