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Sun

09

Sep 2018

Numbers that are powers of two (i.e. 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024 and so on...) are especially important in programming, due to the way computers work - they operate on binary representation. Sometimes there is a need to ensure that certain number is power of two. For example, it might be important for size and alignment of some memory blocks. This property simplifies operations on such quantities - they can be manipulated using bitwise operations instead of arithmetic ones.

In this post I'd like to present efficient algorithms for 3 common operations on power-of-2 numbers, in C++. I do it just to gather them in one place, because they can be easily found in many other places all around the Internet. These operations can be implemented using other algorithms as well. Most obvious implementation would involve a loop over bits, but that would give O(n) time complexity relative to the number of bits in operand type. Following algorithms use clever bit tricks to be more efficient. They have constant or logarithmic time and they don't use any flow control.

**1. Check if a number is a power of two.** Examples:

IsPow2(0) == true (!!) IsPow2(1) == true IsPow2(2) == true IsPow2(3) == false IsPow2(4) == true IsPow2(123) == false IsPow2(128) == true IsPow2(129) == false

This one I know off the top of my head. The trick here is based on an observation that a number is power of two when its binary representation has exactly one bit set, e.g. 128 = 0b10000000. If you decrement it, all less significant bits become set: 127 = 0b1111111. Bitwise AND checks if these two numbers have no bits set in common.

template <typename T> bool IsPow2(T x) { return (x & (x-1)) == 0; }

**2. Find smallest power of two greater or equal to given number.** Examples:

NextPow2(0) == 0 NextPow2(1) == 1 NextPow2(2) == 2 NextPow2(3) == 4 NextPow2(4) == 4 NextPow2(123) == 128 NextPow2(128) == 128 NextPow2(129) == 256

This one I had in my library for a long time.

uint32_t NextPow2(uint32_t v) { v--; v |= v >> 1; v |= v >> 2; v |= v >> 4; v |= v >> 8; v |= v >> 16; v++; return v; } uint64_t NextPow2(uint64_t v) { v--; v |= v >> 1; v |= v >> 2; v |= v >> 4; v |= v >> 8; v |= v >> 16; v |= v >> 32; v++; return v; }

**3. Find largest power of two less or equal to given number.** Examples:

PrevPow2(0) == 0 PrevPow2(1) == 1 PrevPow2(2) == 2 PrevPow2(3) == 2 PrevPow2(4) == 4 PrevPow2(123) == 64 PrevPow2(128) == 128 PrevPow2(129) == 128

I needed this one just recently and it took me a while to find it on Google. Finally, I found it in this post on StackOveflow.

uint32_t PrevPow2(uint32_t v) { v |= v >> 1; v |= v >> 2; v |= v >> 4; v |= v >> 8; v |= v >> 16; v = v ^ (v >> 1); return v; } uint64_t PrevPow2(uint64_t v) { v |= v >> 1; v |= v >> 2; v |= v >> 4; v |= v >> 8; v |= v >> 16; v |= v >> 32; v = v ^ (v >> 1); return v; }

**Update 2018-09-10:** As I've been notified on Twitter, C++20 is also getting such functions as standard header <bit>.

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